Distributed by Center for Medicaid and CHIP Services (CMCS)
Today, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) posted additional Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) to the Medicaid.gov website to aid state Medicaid and Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) agencies in their response to the 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak. CMS is taking this action in its continuing efforts to protect the health and safety of providers and patients, including those who are covered by Medicaid and CHIP.
A news alert with further information can be found here: https://www.cms.gov/newsroom/press-releases/covid-19-response-news-alert-cms-frequently-asked-questions-faqs-state-medicaid-and-childrens-health
As we answer new questions, those responses will be integrated into a comprehensive set of FAQs. The complete COVID-19 FAQs for State Medicaid and CHIP agencies, including those previously issued and those released today, can be found here: https://www.medicaid.gov/state-resource-center/disaster-response-toolkit/covid19/index.html
Newly answered questions are identified as such in the document, and are also included in the body of this email for easy reference. Additionally, Medicaid and Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) agencies can send additional questions directly to the mailbox: MedicaidCOVID19@cms.hhs.gov.
These FAQs, and earlier CMS actions in response to the COVID-19 virus, are part of the ongoing White House Task Force efforts. To keep up with the important work CMS is doing in response to COVID-19, please visit the Current Emergencies Website. Additionally, CMS has launched a dedicated, Medicaid.gov, COVID-19 resource page that will be continually updated with relevant information.
CMS is available to provide technical assistance to states to support your needs in responding to the COVID-19 virus. If you have questions or would like technical assistance in this area, please contact your state lead.
Below are the new FAQs that CMS posted on Medicaid.gov today:
Should a drug shortage develop, if a drug is provided by a manufacturer not participating in the national drug rebate program, will FFP be available?
Generally, if a state plan provides medical assistance for a drug that meets the definition of a covered outpatient drug (COD) as defined at §1927(k), section 1927 must be complied with in order for FFP to be available. So, if that COD is not provided by a manufacturer participating in the Medicaid drug rebate program, that is, the COD is not distributed by a manufacturer with a National Drug Rebate Agreement, the drug does not qualify for FFP. To be clear, it is not required that a drug meet the definition of a COD in order to qualify for FFP. If a drug is a prescribed drug, as defined in regulation at 42 C.F.R. §440.120, it may still qualify for FFP. However, if that prescribed drug meets the definition of a COD, it is not eligible for FFP unless section 1927 is also complied with (e.g., the manufacturer of the drug has in effect a National Drug Rebate Agreement). Please see State Release # 178. States can e-mail the CMS RxDRUGPolicy@CMS.HHS.gov resource mailbox with any questions related to the medication status.
Are Medicaid home health agencies able to collect the samples necessary for the diagnostic testing for COVID-19?
If a physician orders the diagnostic test and the sample collection needed is within the scope of practice for the home health nurse or can be delegated to other practitioners, based on the state’s nurse practice act, Medicaid may cover the collection under the home health benefit. If it is not within the scope of practice, CMS encourages states to explore state emergency or other authorities to remove these restrictions during this public health emergency. CMS is available for technical assistance.
Pursuant to 42 C.F.R. §440.70(f), if the sample collection is a beneficiary’s first utilization of the home health benefit, a face-to-face encounter must have occurred no longer than 90 days before or 30 days after the start of services and must be related to the primary reason the beneficiary requires home health services. See the following question for additional information on flexibilities related face-to-face encounters.
Are there any available flexibilities in implementing the requirement for face-to-face encounters under Medicaid home health? Can telehealth be utilized?
Yes. For initiation of home health services, face-to-face encounters may occur using telehealth as described at 42 C.F.R. §440.70(f)(6). A physician, nurse practitioner or clinical nurse specialist, a certified nurse midwife, a physician assistant, or attending acute or post-acute physician for beneficiaries admitted to home health immediately after an acute or post-acute stay may perform the face-to-face encounter. The allowed non-physician practitioner must communicate the clinical findings of the face-to-face encounter to the ordering physician. Those clinical findings must be incorporated into the beneficiary’s written or electronic medical record. Additionally, the ordering physician must document that the face-to-face encounter occurred within the required timeframes prior to the start of home health services and indicate the practitioner who conducted the encounter and the date of the encounter. A state plan amendment would only be necessary to revise existing state plan language that imposes telehealth parameters that would restrict this practice. As is discussed above and at https://www.medicaid.gov/medicaid/benefits/telemedicine/index.html, states are not required to submit separate state plan amendments for coverage or reimbursement of telehealth services if they decide to reimburse for telehealth services in the same manner or at the same rate paid for face-to-face services. A state plan amendment would be necessary to accommodate any revisions to payment methodologies to account for telehealth costs.
Can Pre-Admission Screening and Resident Review (PASRR) Level 1 and Level 2 evaluations be conducted remotely as opposed to through a face-to-face visit?
Yes. The PASRR statutory provisions require all applicants to and residents of Medicaid-certified nursing facilities (NFs) be screened for mental illness and intellectual disability, and, if necessary, be provided specialized services while in the NF.
Federal regulations do not prohibit PASRR Level 1 and Level 2 evaluations from being conducted by telephone or through another electronic medium. Unless the state has a specific requirement that PASRR Level 2 evaluations be conducted in a face-to-face interview, there is no need to amend language in the state plan.
States can also request an 1135 waiver to temporarily suspend pre-admission screening and resident review Level 1 and Level 2 for 30 days.
Are “telephonic services” provided by federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) or rural health clinics (RHCs) eligible for FFP during and immediately following a declared state of emergency?
Yes, FFP is available for telephonic services. If a state’s approved state plan excludes FQHC/RHC services from being provided telephonically, CMS can work with the state to expedite processing of a state plan amendment to lift this restriction.
Do states need to a submit a SPA if they pay the same PPS rate for telephonic services provided by FQHCs or RHCs as they pay for services delivered in-person?
No state plan amendment is needed if the state plan does not specifically define a visit for the purpose of reimbursing FQHC services as a “face to face encounter” with an eligible provider type. If it does, and states would like to reimburse telephonically delivered services at the PPS rate, they would need to submit a SPA amending the definition of a visit.
Can states pay FQHCs and RHCs an amount less than the PPS rate on a FFS basis with an approved SPA or waiver? Additionally, if a service is provided telephonically, can the state pay the provider an amount lower than PPS for the telephonic service delivered via telehealth?
If a service is covered within the scope of the FQHC/RHC benefit, section 1902(bb) of the Act requires a state to pay a provider using the state plan prospective payment system (PPS) rate or an alternative payment methodology (APM) that pays at least the PPS rate. For services that are not covered as part of the FQHC/RHC benefit, a state may pay providers using the state plan fee-for-service payment methodology established for that service. Rates for those services may be lower than the PPS or an APM paid for FQHC/RHC services, provided the rate is consistent with all other applicable requirements, including section 1902(a)(30)(A) of the Act. This policy applies whether a service is delivered face-to-face or telephonically.
Do states need a SPA or waiver to authorize payment for FQHC or RHC services provided off the clinic premises, including at a temporary shelter, a beneficiary’s home, or any location other than the clinic but within the boundaries of the state of emergency proclamation?
FQHCs and RHCs generally may provide services outside the four walls of the clinic. If a state is concerned that something in its existing state plan might prevent that, CMS can work with the state to determine whether a state plan amendment might be necessary. If a state plan amendment is necessary, CMS can work with the state to expedite processing it. We encourage states to maximize this flexibility during the emergency response to ensure necessary care is delivered within communities.
Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System (HCPCS) code G0071 is reimbursable to FQHC and RHCs for virtual communication activities, including telephone calls. Do states need to submit a SPA to activate that code?
States do not need to submit a state plan amendment to activate HCPCS code G0071 unless the state decides to pay a rate for that code that is different from the face-to-face encounter rate approved in the Medicaid state plan.
Managed Care Flexibilities
How can states implement or update Medicaid or CHIP managed care telehealth policies, including allowing remote monitoring and reimbursement of telehealth services at the in-person clinical services rate?
The Trump Administration encourages states to take advantage of broad flexibility to deliver services via telehealth in Medicaid and CHIP to help prevent the spread of the Coronavirus as is discussed at https://www.medicaid.gov/medicaid/benefits/telemedicine/index.html and https://www.medicaid.gov/state-resource-center/disaster-response-toolkit/covid19/index.html. The available telehealth flexibility allows Medicaid beneficiaries to receive a wide range of healthcare services from their providers without having to travel to a health care facility so that they can limit risk of exposure and spread of the virus. In fee-for-service, states are not required to submit separate state plan amendments for coverage or reimbursement of telehealth services if they decide to reimburse for telehealth services in the same manner or at the same rate paid for face-to-face services. Medicaid guidelines require all providers to practice within the scope of their State Practice Act, and states may have laws and regulations that govern the scope of telemedicine coverage. In fee-for-service, a state plan amendment would be necessary to accommodate any revisions to payment methodologies to account for telehealth costs.
If a benefit is covered under the state plan or Medicaid waiver (e.g., section 1915(b) or 1915(c)) or a state demonstration (e.g., section 1115), CMS encourages states to amend managed care contracts (if not already included in the contract) to extend the same telehealth flexibilities authorized under their state plan, waiver, or demonstration for services covered under the contract. Absent coverage under the state plan or otherwise authorized through a Medicaid waiver or demonstration, services furnished under telehealth through managed care could also be provided as:
- In-lieu of services (42 C.F.R. 438.3(e)(2) and 42 C.F.R. §457.1201(e)). Under these regulations, alternate services or services furnished in an alternative setting covered by a managed care plan or entity in lieu of state plan-covered services must be: (i) authorized by the state as being a medically appropriate and cost-effective substitute for the covered service or setting under the state plan; (ii) authorized and identified in the managed care contract; and (iii) not required to be used by the enrollee in lieu of the state plan-covered service. In addition, there are specific rate development rules used when a managed care contract authorizes use of in-lieu of services.
- Additional services, beyond those in the contract, voluntarily provided by managed care plans (commonly referred to as value-added services). No contract amendment is needed; however, the cost of value-added services cannot be included when determining the capitation rates (per 42 C.F.R. 438.3(e)(1)(i) and 42 C.F.R. §457.1201(e)).
Regarding Medicaid managed care payment, under 42 C.F.R. §§438.3(c)(1)(ii) and 438.4, final capitation rates must be actuarially sound and based only upon services covered under the state plan or waiver authority and represent a payment amount adequate to allow the managed care organization (MCO), prepaid inpatient health plan (PIHP) or prepaid ambulatory health plan (PAHP) to efficiently deliver covered services to Medicaid-eligible individuals in a manner compliant with contractual requirements. If a state determines a retroactive adjustment to capitation rates under one or more of its managed care contracts is necessary for costs eligible for reimbursement, such as telehealth-related infrastructure costs, retroactive adjustments must be certified by an actuary in a revised rate certification and submitted as a contract amendment in accordance with 42 C.F.R. §438.7(c)(2). The rate certification must describe the rationale for the adjustment and the data, assumptions and methodologies used to develop the magnitude of the adjustment. For additional information about telemedicine, visit: https://www.medicaid.gov/medicaid/benefits/telemedicine/index.html. For CHIP, rates must be based on public or private payment rates for comparable services for comparable populations, consistent with actuarially sound principles, as described in 42 C.F.R. §457.1203(a). States that update their CHIP capitation payments due to telehealth related costs would not need to submit a rate certification.
Can states allow managed care plans to permit 90-day supplies of medication at retail and mail-order pharmacies in situations where 90-day medication supplies are clinically appropriate? Can states allow waivers of early refill requirements during public health emergencies?
States should review their state plans and managed care contracts to ensure they have no state restrictions in place. In general, states have flexibility to establish Medicaid and CHIP FFS prior authorization and drug utilization review processes that encompass extended day supplies and early refills for emergency situations without CMS approval. Some states may need to modify their state plans. Under CMS managed care regulations, the need for a contract amendment related to prior authorization, extended day supplies of medication, and early refills will be dependent upon the detail included in states’ existing managed care contracts. If existing managed care contracts do not allow for 90-day supplies of medications or early refill requirements, states will need to submit a contract amendment. CMS will prioritize our review and approval of COVID-19 related state plan or contract amendments.
How can states and managed care plans educate beneficiaries on COVID-19, including CDC best practices for infection control and medical management, as well as provide COVID-19 information that can be shared with case managers and MCO disease management staff and partners?
We strongly encourage states and managed care plans to collaborate on communication of CDC best practices for infection control and medical management to their Medicaid enrollees. This information can be found at: https://www.coronavirus.gov. All relevant CDC guidance is also posted on the CMS website and new information will be shared with states as it becomes available. Current guidance is available at: https://www.cms.gov/About-CMS/Agency-Information/Emergency/EPRO/Current-Emergencies/Current-Emergencies-page. States and managed care plans may share relevant information with case and care managers. Managed care plans providing written documents to Medicaid and CHIP beneficiaries will need to comply with information requirement regulations at 42 C.F.R. §438.10 and 42 C.F.R. §457.1207. CMS notes that the materials provided by the CDC are compliant with the “Plain Language Act of 2010” (https://www.cdc.gov/other/plainwriting.html), which requires all federal agencies to write plainly when they communicate with the public. Therefore, for the purposes of 42 C.F.R. §438.10(c), CMS considers all CDC materials written in a manner and format that is easily understood and is readily accessible.
How can states collaborate with managed care plan partners and community-based organizations, including home-delivery services, to provide non-medical supports, such as meals and over the counter medications, to Medicaid and CHIP beneficiaries quarantined or self-quarantined in their homes?
As long as a benefit is covered under the state plan or waiver authority, states can add services to managed care contracts via a contract amendment. See question C.1. for information regarding adding benefits to state plans or waiver authorities. Managed care plans also have flexibility to voluntarily provide additional services beyond those in the contract, referred to as value-added services. No contract amendment is needed for value added services; however, the cost of such services cannot be included when determining the capitation rates.
In emergency circumstances where utilization and/or costs cannot be estimated, will CMS permit payment for testing as a non-risk payment outside a capitation payment?
There are multiple approaches under which states can permit payment for COVID-19 testing in managed care programs. To be considered a mandatory laboratory service as described at 1905(a)(3) of the Act and 42 C.F.R. § 440.30, the COVID-19 test must be ordered and provided by or under the direction of a physician or other licensed practitioner within the appropriate scope of practice as defined by the state, or ordered by a physician, but provided by referral laboratory. To meet this definition, the test must be provided in an office or similar facility other than a hospital outpatient department or clinic and furnished by a laboratory that meets Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) requirements at Part 493 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Tests that do not meet these criteria may still be covered under the optional diagnostic benefit described at 1905(a)(13) of the Act and 42 C.F.R. § 440.130(a).
To the extent that health plans are responsible for providing laboratory services, they must cover the COVID-19 test. However, in the event the approved rates are not sufficient to cover the cost of these tests, states may wish to address through actuarially sound rate adjustments. States could amend their rates to include an adjustment for those costs, if such an adjustment is actuarially sound and the state determines that to be necessary, subject to compliance with 42 C.F.R. §§ 438.4 through 438.7 regarding rate development and amendment of capitation rates. States could also create a kick payment (consistent with actuarial soundness requirements) for managed care plans to cover the tests, which would require a contract amendment and rate certification.
States could also pay for the tests outside of the managed care capitation payment as a non-risk payment: either as a separate non-risk contract with its managed care plans (see the definition of “non-risk contract” at 42 C.F.R. §438.2 or as an amendment to its existing managed care plan contracts to include a non-risk payment. If a state chooses to amend its existing contracts to include a non-risk payment, the state would need to comply with upper payment limits outlined at 42 C.F.R. §447.362 consistent with the requirements for non-risk contracts. For CHIP, states could follow the same approach of paying for the tests outside of the managed care capitation payment as a non-risk payment.
Additionally, states have the option to pay for the tests under their Medicaid/CHIP fee-for-service programs, and carve this benefit out of the managed care program and contracts.
In general, CMS advises that states review their managed care contracts and rates carefully to identify any existing flexibilities to determine whether managed care contract or rate amendments are needed.
1115 Demonstration Flexibilities
Can a state temporarily amend a section 1115 demonstration in conjunction with the public health emergency?
Yes, a state may submit a request to temporarily amend a demonstration in conjunction with the public health emergency. Demonstration special terms and conditions, as well as waivers and expenditure authorities, as applicable, may be authorized for a limited time, as needed. CMS will prioritize these requests for accelerated review.
If a state submits a demonstration amendment, is full public notice required or does this situation meet the criteria for an exemption?
A state would not need to complete full public notice. To the extent a requirement for a public notice process otherwise would apply with respect to the amendment, a Secretary-declared public health emergency would meet the criteria for an exemption described in the transparency regulations at 42 C.F.R. §431.416(g). The state would be required to submit an application that CMS would post to Medicaid.gov. Transparency regulations at 42 C.F.R. §431.416(g) state that CMS may expedite approval of a demonstration if the following conditions are met: i) the state acted in good faith, and in a diligent, timely, and prudent manner; ii) the circumstances constitute an emergency and could not have been reasonably foreseen; and iii) delay would undermine or compromise the purpose of the demonstration and be contrary to the interests of beneficiaries. CMS expects that COVID-19 related requests generally would meet these criteria.
Can an amendment request be retroactive?
CMS can provide 1115 demonstration authority connected to a public health emergency retroactive to the effective date of the public health emergency. Secretary Azar issued a public health emergency regarding COVID-19 on January 31, 2020, which was effective January 27, 2020. Therefore, CMS can provide authority for such a request back to January 27, 2020, as needed.
Federal regulations at 42 C.F.R. §431.420(c) require a public forum to allow comment on the progress of a state’s section 1115 demonstration within six months of demonstration approval. Some state agencies have been directed to cancel in-person gatherings of constituency groups to prevent the spread of COVID-19. Does an alternate plan to host the forum as a webinar without an in-person audience, accepting comments via webinar and in writing, fulfill the 1115 demonstration requirements?
Yes, this alternate proposal would meet the public forum requirements for the section 1115 demonstration in the context of this declared public health emergency. States are reminded of their obligation to comply with applicable civil rights and other laws pertaining to accessibility, and should make these alternate public hearings as accessible as possible in the current environment. As another alternative, if a state would like to delay the post-award forum until a later time, CMS would also offer an extension of the deadline to meet this deliverable; a state interested in this option should contact the CMS-designated contact person for the demonstration to discuss the parameters of an extension.
Can alternative meeting formats fulfill the public hearing requirements at 42 C.F.R. §431.408? For example, could two public meetings available only through telephonic and/or Web conference capabilities, without any in-person attendance, meet federal requirements?
Yes, in the context of this declared public health emergency, the state may be exempted from any of the normal public process requirements outlined in 42 C.F.R. §431.408. Pursuant to 42 C.F.R. §431.416(g), CMS has discretion to exempt the state from completing any aspect of the public notice process, including exemption from conducting any public notice, when the State demonstrates to CMS the existence of unforeseen circumstances resulting from a natural disaster, public health emergency, or other sudden emergency that directly threatens human lives that warrant an exception to the normal public notice process. To address the question above, in lieu of in-person meetings, the state may hold meetings in any alternative format (webinar, telephonic, written submission) that permits submission of public input; including using two telephonic conferences in lieu of in-person public hearings.
Can alternative meeting formats fulfill the medical care advisory committee participation requirements at 42 C.F.R. §431.12? For example, could committee meetings available only through telephonic and/or Web conference capabilities, without any in-person attendance, meet federal requirements?
Yes, in lieu of in-person meetings, a state has discretion to hold meetings in any alternative format (webinar, telephonic, written submission) that provides committee members with the opportunity to participate in policy development and program administration. States are reminded of their obligation to comply with applicable civil rights and other laws pertaining to accessibility, and should make these alternate meetings as accessible as possible in the current environment.